Thiruvananthapuram is also known in the literature, and popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal, erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.  The city is home to media institutions like Toonz India Ltd and Tata Elxsi Ltd, and is also home to Chitranjali Film Studio, one of the first film studios in Malayalam Cinema, and Kinfra Film and Video Park at Kazhakoottom, which is India's first Infotainment industrial park. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is listed in UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves. The lowest temperature recorded in the city core was 17.8 °C (64.0 °F) on 6 January 1974 and the highest temperature was 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) on 4 April 2007.  Other IT, media and industrial campuses include Kinfra Film and Video Park, Kinfra Apparel Park, B-HUB and Chithranjali Film Complex. The cuisine of Kerala, a state in the south of India, is linked to its history, geography, demography and culture. Vizhinjam, which is now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram, was the capital of the Ay dynasty. Cheras  In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of Hyder Ali of Mysore. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district. The first Malayalam channel, Doordarshan Malayalam began broadcasting from the city in 1981. , Thiruvananthapuram is served by the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, located at Chakai, only 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) from the city centre. Karnataka Rajyotsava or Karnataka Formation Day was also on November 1, 1956. "Kerala." "Trade, Conversion and the Growth of the Islamic Community of Kerala, South India", Dale, Stephen Frederic. The zonal offices are in Fort, Kadakampally, Nemom, Ulloor, Attipra, Thiruvallom, Kazhakkuttom, Sreekaryam, Kudappanakunnu, Vattiyoorkavu and Vizhinjam. On 16 August 2018, severe floods affected the south Indian state Kerala, due to unusually high rainfall during the monsoon season.  The location of Vanchi is generally considered near the ancient port city of Muziris in Kerala. LANDFORMS FACTS ABOUT KERALA The geography of Kerala is fascinating.  Electricity is supplied by the Kerala State Electricity Board. In 1779, the Anglo-French war broke out, resulting in the French loss of Mahé, India. , Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area. , As the seat of the Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies but also the Kerala Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat, which is housed in the Kerala Government Secretariat complex.  It was one of the 12 Public-private partnership project case studies from across the world which fulfil the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN Agenda 2030. Thiruvananthapuram has two parliamentary constituencies—Attingal and Thiruvananthapuram—and elects five Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature. The Madras Presidency was reorganised to form Madras State in 1947. In the 8th century, Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in central Kerala.  Other enterprises include Travancore Titanium Products, Kerala Automobiles Limited, MILMA, English Indian Clays, Keltron, Trivandrum Rubber Works and HLL Lifecare Limited. Ayurveda Hub.  Thiruvananthapuram was listed as one of the top ten cities in India on Vibrancy and Consumption Index by a study conducted by global financial services firm Morgan Stanley. Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the land. Houseboats in Kerala, south India, are huge, slow-moving barges used for leisure trips.They are a reworked model of Kettuvallams (in the Malayalam language, Kettu means "tied with ropes", and vallam means "boat"), which, in earlier times, were used to carry rice and spices from Kuttanad to the Kochi port.Kerala houseboats were considered a convenient means of transportation.  The most powerful kingdom of Kerala during the colonial period, Travancore, was developed through the expansion of Venad by Mahahrajah Marthanda Varma, a member of the Thrippappur branch of the Ay Dynasty who ascended to the throne in the 18th century.  Prominent social reformers such as Sri Narayana Guru, Chattampi Swamikal, Ayyankali, Vakkom Moulavi and C. V. Raman Pillai also are from Thiruvananthapuram. , The oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the Matsya Avatar (fish incarnation) of Lord Vishnu, in the Western Ghats. , Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure. His entire kingdom was then a land of immense prosperity and happiness. As a testimony to this, renowned artists like Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Raja Ravi Varma hail from the city. He led the Pychy Rebellion (Wynaad Insurrection, Coiote War) against the English East India Company.  Thiruvananthapuram's literacy rate of 93.72% exceeds the all-India average of 74%. Eradis subsequently moved their capital to the coastal marshy lands and established the kingdom of Kozhikode They later assumed the title of Samudrāthiri ("one who has the sea for his border") and continued to rule from Kozhikode. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.  There will be two main races; a half marathon of 21 km and a full marathon of 42.19 km. The Literacy Rate In Kerala Is Almost 100% The fact proves that Kerala has the highest literacy rates …  After the death of king Vikramaditya Varaguna in 925 AD, the glory of the Ays departed and almost all their territories became part of the Chera dynasty. There are three universities in Thiruvananthapuram: two state universities and one deemed university.  Literary development is further aided by state institutions such as the State Central Library, one of the oldest public libraries in India, which was established in 1829, and other major libraries including the Thiruvananthapuram Corporation Central library, and the Kerala University Library.  The 111-day-long Soorya Festival is the biggest art and cultural event in Kerala.  The presence of natural attractions like beaches, backwaters, hills, and plantations and attractions like heritage, history, Ayurveda, medical tourism and knowledge centres attract many tourists. , The region of Kerala was possibly engaged in trading activities from the 3rd millennium BCE with Sumerians and Babylonians. The humidity is high and rises to about 90% during the monsoon season. , Schools in Thiruvananthapuram are classified as aided, unaided and Government schools. The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala. However, these reforms were largely non-effective to mark a greater change in the society as these changes were not effected to a large extend.  Jews arrived in Kerala as early as 573 BCE. Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT and ITES hub in India. In 2012, Thiruvananthapuram was named the best Kerala city to live in, by a field survey conducted by The Times of India. It is … Keep your mind alert for this Kerala’s fact, this will may surprise … The notable schools in the city include St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, which is considered as one of the largest schools in Asia, with the total number of students exceeding 12,000, Government Model Boys Higher Secondary School, Government Higher Secondary School for Girls, Holy Angel's Convent Trivandrum, SMV School, Trivandrum International School, Chinmaya Vidyalayas, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Loyola School, Christ Nagar School, Thiruvananthapuram, Sarvodaya Vidyalaya, Nirmala Bhavan Higher Secondary School, Arya Central School, Jyothi Nilayam School, St. Joseph's Higher Secondary School, St. Thomas Residential School, The Oxford School and VSSC Central School. The average literacy rate in Kerala is about 93%. The Samoothiri Maharaja of Kozhikode permitted the Portuguese to trade with his subjects.  Thiruvananthapuram has historically been a cultural hub in South India due to the development of arts, architecture and liberal customs by the rulers of erstwhile Trivandrum. It was the worst flood in Kerala in nearly a century. It is the largest gathering of women in the world. The functions of the Municipal Corporation are managed by seven departments—engineering, health, general administration, council, accounts and revenue. University of Kent, University of Porto, 2020), Bayly, Susan.  Nonetheless, the Portuguese suffered severe setbacks due to attacks by Samoothiri Maharaja's forces, especially naval attacks under the leadership of admirals of Kozhikode known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. A meeting of the Indian National Congress presided by Dr Pattabhi Sitaramaiah was held here in 1938. However, Mahabali was tricked into giving up his rule, and was thus overthrown by Vamana (Thrikkakkarayappan), the fifth Avatar (earthly incarnation) of Lord Vishnu. Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist hub in India. … The early rulers of the city were the Ays. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen. A speaker of Malayalam is called a Malayali. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta.  These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu).  In 2013, the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today. He was banished from the Earth to rule over one of the netherworld (Patala) planets called Sutala by Vamana.  After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was fractured into about thirty small warring principalities under Nair Chieftains; most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle.. This … Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a number of fortresses along the Malabar Coast. His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita (nondualism). ", Jeffrey, Robin. Mahabali comes back to visit Kerala every year on the occasion of Onam.  Following India's independence in 1947, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained so till the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in 1956.  The remainder of the community includes Jains, Jews, Sikhs, Buddhists and other religions which account for 0.06% of the population; 0.85% did not state a belief in the census. He also established the first film studio of Kerala, the Travancore National Pictures at Thiruvananthapuram in 1926.  The surf competitions are usually held in Kovalam Beach and Varkala Beach.  Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC.  SBI Kerala, Titanium FC, KSEB, Kovalam FC and Travancore Royals FC are the major football clubs based in Thiruvananthapuram. Major Malayalam newspapers available are Mathrubhumi, Malayala Manorama, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani, Madhyamam, Janmabhumi, Chandrika, Thejas, Siraj Daily, Deepika and Rashtra Deepika. Vizhinjam International Seaport is a transhipment port under construction. TMC has the power to act as the local government of the city.  In addition to this, three units of the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Sector Headquarters (SHQ) of the Border Security Force (BSF) are also present.  Kerala University also ranked top in overall institution rankings in Kerala. Rise of Travancore Which party was in power in Kerala State Assembly from the early 1980s? Several establishments of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) were later established in Thiruvananthapuram.  The Venadu King then also was known as Venadu Mooppil Nayar. A special 2 km fun run is also organised for public participation. Kerala stretches for about 360 miles along the Malabar Coast, varying in width from roughly 20 to 75 miles.  TMC is headed by the Mayor, who is elected from among the councillors. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. Venad was a kingdom in the south west tip of Kerala, which acted as a buffer between Cheras and Pandyas. Fun fact: The state of Karnataka, which borders Kerala to the north also shares it’s foundation birth and birthday with Kerala. Their capital was at Kollam. , A significant milestone in the city's recent history was the establishment of Technopark—India's first IT park—in 1995. Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. "The Kerala model in the time of COVID19: Rethinking state, society and democracy. Kerala, southwestern coastal state of India. Thiruvananthapuram was the main centre of Laurie Baker's architecture. , Kerala University is ranked as the best university in Kerala according to the MHRD's National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF). Kerala (38,863 km 2; 1.18% of India's landmass) is situated between the Arabian Sea to the west and the Western Ghats to the east. Uprisings of note include the rebellion by Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi Dalawa and the Punnapra-Vayalar revolt of 1946.  Thiruvananthapuram was one of the main venues for the 2015 National Games of India. , Thiruvananthapuram has a well-developed road transport infrastructure. Thiruvananthapuram is a major aerospace research centre in India. Vellayani, Thiruvallam and Aakulam backwaters lie in the city. , Other prominent undergraduate and postgraduate colleges include the Government Arts College, Mahatma Gandhi College, Mar Ivanios College, Government Sanskrit College, Loyola College of Social Sciences, St. Xavier's College and All Saints College. Please provide some background as to the politics of the State of Kerala, particularly clashes between the CPIM and INC or DIC or their student arms. Chillies, curry leaves, coconut, mustard seeds, turmeric, tamarind, and asafoetida are all frequently used. Kerala Police Wiki, Facts.  However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. Anamudi or Anai Mudi is the highest peak of Kerala with an altitude of 2,695 m. It is also the highest peak of Western Ghats.  Kerala was alternatively called Kerala as well as Malabar. Malayalam is a language. Bose, Satheese Chandra and Varughese, Shiju Sam (eds.) Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (Kerul Varma Pyche Rajah, Cotiote Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was the Prince Regent and the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam in Malabar, India between 1774 and 1805. For a land surrounded by the sea, fish should be the most special dish.  The aided schools also follow the state syllabus. 5.  The Geological Survey of India has identified Thiruvananthapuram as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the metropolis in the Seismic III Zone. , With the end of the British rule in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian union.  Technopark has developed into the largest IT park in the geographical area, employing around 62,000 people in 450 companies. 26 December 2011.  The BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Limited is one of the leading missile integration and defence production units in India. Geography. According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent). In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi.  It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE. ", Jeffrey, Robin. When the state of Kerala was formed on 1 November 1956, Thiruvananthapuram became its capital. Kerala is the land with the heaviest drinking. , In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering the kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin (1791) and Travancore (1795), and these became princely states of British India, maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British.  The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces.  Long-distance trains originate from Thiruvananthapuram Central and Kochuveli railway terminal. , The Kerala Water Authority supplies the city with water that is sourced from the Karamana River; most of it drawn from Aruvikkara and Peppara reservoirs and is treated and purified at the Aruvikkara pumping stations. , The Thiruvananthapuram City Police is the main law-enforcement agency in the city.  J. C. Daniel is considered the father of Malayalam film industry. Portuguese period Cochin , The Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force is headquartered in the city. The airport started operations from 1935 and is the first airport in Kerala. Encyclopædia Britannica.  Thiruvananthapuram was ranked the best Indian city for two consecutive years, 2015 and 2016, according to the Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) conducted by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. On 24 March 1948 linguistically separate during this period India ; from 2000 to current.. 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