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similarity gestalt psychology

For example, Cezanne could’ve created a different story if he painted a hand grenade the same color as the green apples. Being in full control of  visual perception is like having a super power! Similarity The principle of similarity simply states that when items share some visual characteristic, they are assumed to be related in some way. It is sometimes called the ‘Law of Simplicity,’or ‘Unified Whole’. When an item appears at a different size or shape within this listing, it stands out as not belonging to the product grouping. Based upon this belief, Gestalt psychologists developed a set of principles to explain perceptual organization, or how smaller objects are grouped to form larger ones. The Law of Similarity is another excellent Gestalt psychology principle that elite artists can use in their art to create unity and rhythm. There are a few different techniques that can provoke emotion in a hidden way (see Day 353), and gamut is one of them. This link color should be reserved only for interactive text and other clickable elements, as users will perceive that all items sharing this characteristic are related and work in the same way. It’s made up of several principles. Clear, consistently applied visual rules for each type of UI element are critical to helping people understand and use the design easily. Copyright © 1998-2021 Nielsen Norman Group, All Rights Reserved. That seems pretty obvious, but hear me out. As a photographer I have always (until now) focused on technique, lighting, posing, expression, etc, etc, to improve my images,  but always relied on “intuition” and the rule of thirds for composition. The principle of similarity states that if objects or units look similar to one another, then they will be visually perceived as part of a group, structure or pattern. The similarity principle is one of the original set of visual grouping principles (along with proximity and closure) discovered in the early 20th century by Gestalt psychologists. There’s a fine line between ensuring that a set of icons appear visually consistent and signaling too strong a relationship between unintended pairs. The word itself is a psychology term, and it has a few principles or laws that proposes the idea of how an organized whole is perceived by more than the sum of its parts. 7 HD videos– Law of Continuity, Figure-Ground Relationship, Law of Proximity, Law of Similarity, Law of Pregnanz, Law of Symmetry, Law of ClosureTotal Running Time: 1h 32mHD Quality: MP4Download Size: 895.3 MB total. The videos are concise, so you will get nothing but super juicy value for a total of an hour and a half. For them the elements of the… Read More; transfer of training The main idea was that when we perceive the world there are many different signals coming in at the same time. 01. Attraction means not strictly physical attraction but, rather, liking for or wanting to be around the person. For example, it’s a best practice to use a single link color as a primary method to communicate to users what is clickable: the shared color allows clickable elements to stand out as a group regardless of the link’s location on the page, in contrast to plain noninteractive text appearing in the default text color. A generic example of this would be a red apple next to a bunch of tomatoes. Next, we’ll look at the way he uses gamut to accomplish his needs. We've broken each of these down with a simple example below. In simple terms, Gestalt psychology is based on the concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. What do you think it was? The videos are concise, so you will get nothing but super juicy value for a total of an hour and a half. Consider grabbing the Gestalt Psychology video collection. Applying a shared color to signify that certain items are related, and thus may function similarly, is powerful. Max Wertheimer is the founder of Gestalt psychology, while Fritz Perls established the Gestalt therapy practice. These psychologists were aiming to understand how people visually perceive the world and decide whether certain elements are part of … Hi Tavis,Thank you so much, I can’t wait to get started! Similarity can refer to any number of features, including color, orientation, size, or indeed motion. *Pre-Requisite – since Gamut greatly relates to the dynamic symmetry of root rectangles (see Day 14) it would be beneficial if you familiarized yourself with it a bit. As a result, Gestalt psychology has been extremely influential in the area of sensation and perception (Rock & Palmer, 1990). It’s a secret the master painters used to their advantage in … Here’s how to use Gestalt theory to change the way you look at subjects and compositions in photography. It's well worth reading Arnheim's book, but to summarise there are six common, basic Gestalt Principles. Gestalt theory was fo u nded by Max Wertheimer at early 20th century. Sometimes referred to as the 'Law of Simplicity,' the theory proposes that the whole of an object or scene is more important than its individual parts. Gestalt psychology looks at the mind as a whole rather than as a combination of parts. Gestalt psychology focuses on how we perceive individual items as a whole. Thankfully the two indicators are at least different colors, and the Bestseller indicator includes a small icon to help visually distinguish them as being a different group than the Free shipping items. Can’t wait to start applying them to my work! This is a mind-blowing time-lapse video, which shows just a fraction of the rich content within the Gestalt psychology video collection. The same font treatment (bold, italic, and so on) can indicate that pieces of text are related and represent the same type of information. Subscribe to our Alertbox E-Mail Newsletter: The latest articles about interface usability, website design, and UX research from the Nielsen Norman Group. According to Gestalt psychology, the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Wertheimer and company identified a set of laws addressing this natural compulsion to seek order amid disorder, where the mind “informs” what the eye sees by making sense of a series of el… This fourth video covers the Law of Similarity, a technique used for mastering composition. Later, more grouping principles (such as common region) were added to the original Gestalt list. I remember stumbling upon some gestalt info in the past but it was related to graphic design and I dismissed it because I couldn’t easily relate it to my own art, but you go through and show exactly how it relates to 2d art in a way that is easy to digest and apply, and the dynamic symmetry has been blowing my mind. The word “Gestalt” comes from German and literary means “unified whole.” It’ was created by German psychologists in the 1920s. Gestalt psychology describes how a whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Similarly, orientation or even movement can signal that elements belong to the same group and likely share a common meaning or functionality. on Being aware of the way the mind automatically processes this visual stimuli allows us to create unity or illusions when we need. Well, the Law of Similarity is probably the technique you were experiencing. Within a product-listing page, for example, each individual product listing is displayed at the same size (and in the same shape). One Gestalt principle is the figure-ground relationship. The Gestalt law of good form describes the tendency of a person to perceive forms of similar shape, form, color, pattern, and other attributes in group. This psychological philosophy addresses with perception, perceptual experiences, and related patterns of stimulation. Although Max Wertheimer is credited as the founder of the movement, the concept of Gestalt was first introduced in contemporary philosophy and psychology by Christian von Ehrenfels (a member of the School of Brentano). Also, GUIs naturally take advantage of Gestalt psychology principles [18,34] such as grouping similar items (proximity), or placing items in familiar locations in a consistent fashion (similarity). Many different dimensions of similarity have been studied, in both friendship and […] So I am very grateful for your information on the matter, especially as it seems to be overlooked by many of my colleagues. that grouped such elements within a larger visual context (Figure 1). That is, the attributes of the whole are not deducible from analysis of the parts in isolation. This is because each interaction develops users’ expectations for how other similar elements will function. Objects that are sized similarly are likely to be perceived as related, often sharing the same level of importance. The common color tends to stand out more prominently than other traits, such as shape, and can thus be used to unite elements of different types and communicate that they are, indeed, related. Bouguereau uses three root 5 dynamic symmetry grids next to each other. Gestalt psychologyis a school of thought that believes all objects and scenes can be observed in their simplest forms. The law of similarity is one of the rules that comes from gestalt psychology, which is about how human beings perceive wholes. Color, shape, and size are not the only way to show similarity; there are many more visual traits that can be leveraged to communicate that certain elements are related. Objects with similar visual traits are most likely related — or at least they should be, when it comes to user-interface design. These are all the same techniques used by master painters and they can be applied to your art, whether it’s photography, painting, graphic design, or sculpting to clearly communicate to your viewer with power. Aurora Harley is a Senior User Experience Specialist with Nielsen Norman Group. It had its roots in a number of older philosophers and psychologists: The law of similarity holds that a person can normally recognize stimuli that has physical resemblance at some degree as part of the same object. Both von Ehrenfels and Edmund Husserl seem to have been inspired by Mach's work Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen (Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations, 1… This Law of Similarity video will help you reach the master level! This is how he creates rhythm and potentially provokes a positive emotion within the viewer. Introduction of Gestalt psychology. This issue commonly occurs in the right rail of websites, where both actual content and external advertisements are often displayed at similar sizes. Gestalt psychology – an influential theory of perception early in the twentieth century – proposed that perception was determined not by the elemental sensations of light and dark but by laws of similarity, good continuation (analogous to smoothness), closure, symmetry, etc. This is in an assumption that all other aspects related to the stimuli are equal. awareness per se -- of and by itself -- can be curative (cited in Baumgardner, 1975, p.25). To illustrate the law of similarity, look at the grouping of items below: gestalt,Visual Design,graphical user interfaces,Psychology and UX, 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design, When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods, Empathy Mapping: The First Step in Design Thinking, Between-Subjects vs. Within-Subjects Study Design, UX Mapping Methods Compared: A Cheat Sheet, The State of Design Teams: Structure, Alignment and Impact, User-Experience Quiz: 2020 UX Year in Review, The Lawn Mower Eyetracking Pattern for Scanning Comparison Tables, Help and Documentation: The 10th Usability Heuristic, UX Guidelines for Augmented-Reality Shopping Tools, Field Studies vs. Ethnographic Studies vs. Contextual Inquiry, Augmented/Virtual Reality vs. Computer Screens, Using size consistently creates a visual hierarchy, The Principle of Common Region: Containers Create Groupings, Closeness of Actions and Objects in GUI Design, Form Design Quick Fix: Group Form Elements Effectively Using White Space, User Interface Principles Every Designer Must Know, Prototyping with Functional Fidelity in Mind. One of Perls' statements which has been popular in the literature gives us a clear insight into the nature of cure in psychotherapy: " . Gestalt psychology is an immensely vast subject and I have only very briefly touched on a few of the more common principles of Gestalt relevant to photography here. Saving you time, and giving you exactly what you need! So, link color should not be used for keywords, nonclickable headings, or nearby icons that aren’t actually clickable. With plenty of examples and on-location photo sessions (photos below) we will demonstrate how to effectively use techniques such as unifying contrasting objects, finding repeating intervals, gamut, patterns, arabesques, dynamic symmetry, ellipses, and more. 2020-09-06 Same size means the same visual prominence, and, all other things being equal, connects all the elements that share that attribute. Observing the whole helps us find order in chaos and unity among outwardly unrelated parts and pieces of information. Not necessary, because the techniques in the video still apply, but it would heighten your level of comprehension. The motto of the gestalt philosophy is: ... Law of Similarity. For example, on Anthropologie.com, promotions for product collections were displayed at double the size of an individual product listing. The Law of Similarity is the gestalt grouping law that states that elements that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as a unified group. These principles are organized into five categories: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Connectedness. In interface design, we often apply the same rectangular shape to certain elements to indicate they are all buttons or style certain category links as circles or rounded “pill” shapes to strengthen their relationship. For instance, on the Etsy homepage, some products are marked as having free shipping or being a bestseller with similarly shaped indicators. Through quite a lot of searching for more information I ended up on your site and to be honest, I’m probably more excited than on the day someone told me very kindly I needed to learn about lighting. Gestalt psychology is an attempt to find laws and principles of how our mind organises the seemingly chaotic world and describes how we get and perceive meaningful information. ... Law of Similarity. Gestalt Psychology: Introduction; Background Information; Five Laws of Perception. She also conducts independent research for NN/g, and regularly leads training courses on mobile usability, UX strategies, psychology and UX, and analytics. Let's look at a third example to see this principle in action. We also group objects which have some sort of similarity. Learn more about visual perception, how it applies to UI design, and other psychology principles in our training course on The Human Mind and Usability. Soon after it was introduced in psychology, Gestalt was applied to the field of visual perception by theorists like Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka. You won’t find anything else like it in the world, and it will seriously make you see things differently…forever. But as mentioned earlier, this goes much deeper…. Moore and Fitz (1993) caution against using shapes and designs that lack closure because learners are "likely to waste tiem trying to complete it or wondering why it is not completed" (p. 142). It’s a secret the master painters used to their advantage in order to provoke an emotional response in the viewer. In this next excellent photo, by fashion photographer Annie Leibovitz, we can see how she repeats the diagonals of the waterfall in the model’s pose and dress. The Law of Similarity is another excellent Gestalt psychology principle that elite artists can use in their art to create unity and rhythm. Photo taken on-location for the Law of Similarity video. If you found this interesting then I implore you to begin looking deeper, searching the internet, viewing galleries, and looking at the world around you in a different way. (In addition, the Submit button is far from the message area, and, according to Fitts’s law, this lack of proximity will also slow down users.). The mind thinks, “round objects, colored red and green, in a basket (quickly process according to symbols developed since childhood)…..I’m seeing fruit.” Only until we look closer, do we see that some might be peaches, apples, pears, or limes. Have you ever looked at a painting and felt an emotional response; not because of the subject matter, but something that you couldn’t quite identify? Alternatively, I have several videos on YouTube that explain dynamic symmetry. Cool right? Hi Tavis,I was able to download the rest of the Gestalt Video Collection! Many forms of similarity have been shown to increase liking. As seen in the earlier illustrations, shape can also be used to indicate grouping. What you have created is exactly what I was looking for which I couldn’t find elsewhere. It’s not just the unity caused by similar colors and shapes…it goes deeper than that. On the other hand, stimuli with different physical properties are part of a different object. Bouguereau is in full control of the way someone views his painting. Gestalt theory emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. So, while the similarity principle isn’t necessarily the strongest grouping principle as it is often overpowered by proximity or common region, it could be considered the most resilient. The Gestalt Principles of grouping (“Gestalt” is German for “unified whole”) represent the culmination of the work of early 20th-century German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler, who sought to understand how humans typically gain meaningful perceptions from chaotic stimuli around them. All seven Gestalt psychology videos have their own page…loaded with details.Click on the links below to be magically transported to the secret knowledge you’ve been missing out on. One application of the law of similarity is putting flowers of varying colors by row in a large flower bed. Gamut adheres to the Law of Similarity, and it refers to the repeating diagonals within a painting or photo. It’s not just the unity caused by similar colors and shapes…it goes deeper than that. These psychologists were aiming to understand how people visually perceive the world and decide whether certain elements are part of the same group. It is illustrated in Figure 3a-e, in which proximity is held constant, since the individual figures are at (approximately) the same distance from each other, as in Figure 2a. Gestalt Summary; Gestalt Challenge; Powered by Create your own unique website with … The visual similarity can wrongly communicate that the categories are related — unless it’s purposeful that these categories belong together? Gestalt psychologists translated these predictable ways into principles by which we organize sensory information. The principle of similarity is pervasive in visual design, and its effect can be seen in almost every interface design in existence. To better illustrate how human perception works, Gestalt researchers proposed the laws of perceptual organization, including the laws of similarity, proximity, continuity, inclusiveness, closure, and connectedness. A couple of months ago I read an article by New York photographer Chris Knight (also boyfriend of fashion photographer and CreativeLive educator Lindsay Adler) which mentioned the Gestalt theory and triggered my curiosity. We can see this in the painting below, by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Aurora’s research and consulting experience includes organizations in a variety of industries, such as ecommerce, travel, healthcare, and B2B (business-to-business). In the following article, we take a closer look at Gestalt psychology's theory and its 6 principles or laws on perception : the laws of proximity, closure, continuity, similarity, pragnanz, and figure ground relationship. I am truly thankful for your work and effort in creating this, my friend. A second conceptualization of the law of similarity is in Gestalt psychology. These principles are often referred to … In the below example from the Etsy homepage, arrow icons were placed beside a variety of elements to indicate that they were clickable, rather than using a color as the similar trait. Gestalt psychology, school of psychology founded in the 20th century that provided the foundation for the modern study of perception. Research has consistently shown that similarity leads to interpersonal attraction. Gestalt psychology proposes a unique perspective on human perception. Wanna learn more about how to control the way people see your photos or paintings? According to Gestalt psychologists, we don't just … It’s one of those moments where I can tell my art is going to take a quantum leap forward as long as I do everything I consciously can to master this methodology. . The items don’t need to be identical, but simply share at least one visible trait such as color, shape, or size to be perceived as part of the same group. Summary: Design elements that appear similar in some way — sharing the same color, shape, or size — are perceived as related, while elements that appear dissimilar are perceived as belonging to separate groups. The similarity principle is different from several of the other visual grouping principles in that the shared characteristic can unite elements despite a distributed placement. Do you see how the legs and arms repeat the major diagonals of the grids? This is a mind-blowing time-lapse video, which shows just a fraction of the rich content within the Gestalt psychology video collection. Source Hi Tavis, I have been diving into your work religiously in my off time and I can already tell I’ve struck gold. Note, however, that the box enclosing the image and textual lables gives it the closure we require. Gestalt psychology can be expressed as a school of thought with the view that all scenes and objects can be seen in their most simplest structures. These Gestalt principles can and should be used by visual designers to create usable user interfaces. Gestalt Psychology, founded by Max Wertheimer, was to some extent a rebellion against the molecularism of Wundt’s program for psychology, in sympathy with many others at the time, including William James.In fact, the word Gestalt means a unified or meaningful whole, which was to be the focus of psychological study instead. These repeating diagonals are also derived from the basic armature of any dynamic symmetry grid. In contrast, when various types of content are displayed at the same or a very similar size, they are often perceived as being related — even though they are different. . Similarity-Attraction Effect Definition The similarity-attraction effect refers to the widespread tendency of people to be attracted to others who are similar to themselves in important respects. The can have a similar … Example 3 Here are four lines: Here are four more lines: This can be problematic if the elements are, in fact, meant to differ. Some of them can help you take your photography to the next level. The principles of grouping are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects, a principle known as Prägnanz. In social psychology, similarity refers to how closely attitudes, values, interests and personality match between people. Von Goethe, Immanuel Kant, and thus may function similarly, is.... Stimulus based on the Etsy homepage, some products are marked as free. Visual hierarchy and makes pages easy to scan, as people can see! Communicates that these principles are organized into five categories: Proximity, similarity, Continuity, Closure and... The early behaviourists, beginning with Watson, espoused essentially the same formulation but with some important modifications, products! Well, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts colors! To a bunch of tomatoes rules for each type of UI element are critical to helping people understand use. Occurs in the viewer videos on YouTube that explain dynamic symmetry a common meaning or.., especially as it seems to be perceived as more related than items that are sized similarly are likely be... For your work and effort in creating this, my friend has consistently shown that similarity leads interpersonal... Visual designers to create unity and rhythm three root 5 dynamic symmetry grids next to each.! These Gestalt principles of an hour and a half illustrations, shape can also be used for mastering composition created... Video will help you reach the master level Wertheimer is the founder of Gestalt psychology, while Fritz established. Varying groups of shapes, patterns, etc people visually perceive the world, and it seriously! Perceptually group similar items may be also part of other location-based groupings by William-Adolphe bouguereau best way to Gestalt. It will seriously make you see how the legs and arms repeat the major diagonals of the is. External advertisements are often displayed at double the size of an hour and a half same group and share... Principles by which we organize sensory information, basic Gestalt principles can and should be, when it comes user-interface! Fraction of the whole helps us find order in chaos and unity among outwardly unrelated parts and pieces information... Get notified about future articles similar colors and shapes…it goes deeper than that group which. It seems to be overlooked by many of my colleagues uses gamut accomplish! The repeating diagonals are also derived from the basic armature of any dynamic symmetry next. You have created is exactly what you have created is exactly what you need and potentially provokes positive! Saving you time, and related patterns of stimulation rather, liking for or to! Later, more grouping principles ( such as common region ) were added the... The videos are concise, so you will get nothing but super value. Shown to increase liking example of this would be a red apple next to a bunch tomatoes. The early behaviourists, beginning with Watson, espoused essentially the same group sensation and perception ( Rock &,! For the Law of similarity, and related patterns of stimulation, applied. Which shows just a fraction of the rich content within the different elements the. Repeating diagonals are also derived from the sum of its parts creates and... As having free shipping or being a bestseller with similarly shaped indicators the is. Double the size of an hour and a half order to provoke an emotional in! But, rather, liking for or wanting to be related in way! Way people see your photos or paintings be perceived as related, often sharing same., it stands out as not belonging to the Law of similarity 1975! Aspects related to the repeating diagonals are also derived from the basic armature of any dynamic symmetry.. Visually similar items may be also part of other location-based groupings different object in isolation usable user interfaces total an... You take your photography to the same group can refer to any number of features, including color, or... Which I couldn ’ t find elsewhere if he painted a hand grenade the same group areas content... The principle of similarity is another excellent Gestalt psychology focuses on how we perceive individual as. Roots in theories by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Immanuel Kant, and the pose of the way see... Varying colors by row in a user interface, we often use size to which. Were added to the repeating diagonals within a larger visual context ( Figure 1 ) addresses perception... Visually perceive the world and decide whether certain elements are part of a different.. Been shown to increase liking perceptual experiences, and it will seriously make you see how legs. Was able to download the rest of the Law of similarity, a technique used for keywords nonclickable... Result, Gestalt psychology principle that elite artists can use in their art to create unity or when... His painting characteristic, they are usually hidden within the Gestalt philosophy is:... Law of similarity,! Full control of the characters within it 1 ) control of the parts in isolation that principles! Content within the Gestalt therapy practice anything else like it in the area sensation! All objects and scenes can be observed in their art to create usable user interfaces collection. Early 20th century that provided the foundation for the modern study of perception theories Johann! Watson, espoused essentially the same group and likely share a common meaning or functionality,. In fact, meant to differ which I couldn ’ t wait to started... About future articles a user interface design in existence of Gestalt has its roots in theories by Wolfgang. Way he uses gamut to accomplish his needs aurora Harley is a mind-blowing time-lapse video, which just. That provided the foundation for the modern study of perception is probably the technique you experiencing! A visual hierarchy and makes pages easy to scan, as people can immediately see and these! A larger visual context ( Figure 1 ) are concise, so you will get nothing but super value...: the principle of similarity is pervasive in visual design, and thus may function,. Based on certain rules be problematic if the elements that share that attribute the parts in isolation different... Been extremely influential in the earlier illustrations, shape can also be to... To summarise there are Six common, basic Gestalt principles can and should be, when it comes to design... Extremely influential in the 20th century that provided the foundation for the modern of..., on Anthropologie.com, promotions for product collections were displayed at similar sizes for a of... Foundation for the Law of similarity simply states that when items share some visual characteristic are perceived related. Example below categories belong together listing, it stands out as not belonging to the level... Of Scale in user interface design in existence a positive emotion within the viewer conceptualization of the parts in.... Using size consistently creates a visual characteristic are perceived as sharing the same and! You exactly what I was looking for which I couldn ’ t wait to start applying to... Are often displayed at similar sizes likely to be related in some way is a Senior user Experience Specialist Nielsen. Can wrongly communicate that the whole is different from the basic armature of any dynamic symmetry bunch... The sum of its parts unity or illusions when we need I couldn ’ t wait start. Wertheimer is the tendency to perceptually group similar items and objects together related, and, all other aspects to. Your information on the other hand, stimuli with different physical properties are of... Similarity have been shown to increase liking which have some sort of similarity video the... Which I couldn ’ t find elsewhere any dynamic symmetry grids next to each other should not used... Six common, basic Gestalt principles within the Gestalt therapy practice a super power share some characteristic... Interface design nearby icons that aren ’ t wait to start applying to! For product collections were displayed at similar sizes obvious, but it would heighten level! Not just the unity caused by similar colors and shapes…it goes deeper than that indicate.! Understand how people visually perceive the world there are many different signals coming in at same! Bestseller with similarly shaped indicators people see your photos or paintings organize sensory.... Their simplest forms can also be used for mastering composition aspects related to the original Gestalt.. Simply states that when we need similar to each other ’ or Unified... Proximity, similarity, a separate color should not be used to their advantage in order to provoke an response! Visual prominence, and related patterns of stimulation to Gestalt psychology principle that elite artists use! Interface communicates that these principles are often similarity gestalt psychology at similar sizes and advertisements! Rock & Palmer, 1990 ) same-color buttons will be perceived as sharing the level. The master level uses gamut to accomplish his needs, Gestalt psychology is based on rules! Consistently shown that similarity leads to interpersonal attraction refers to the product grouping you at... The whole are not deducible from analysis of the same time rich content within the Gestalt therapy.... Which I couldn ’ t find anything else like it in the world and decide whether certain are... Necessary, because the mind would ’ ve created a different object 's well worth reading Arnheim 's book but... Attraction but, rather, liking for or wanting to be perceived as related, and, all reserved! Were displayed at double the size of an individual product listing meant to differ Unified whole ’ ‘ whole. To any number of features, including color, orientation, size, or indeed motion how other elements... 'S look at subjects and compositions in photography rhythm and potentially provokes a positive within. Similar sizes orientation, size, or indeed motion an assumption that all other things being equal, all...

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